General

Probiotics

As normal microflora, microorganisms that reproduce in and on the surface of the body are of fundamental importance for highly organized creatures . Microorganisms taken from outside and settled in different parts of our body as normal microflora where they compete with pathogens and inhibit their colonization. The commensal microorganisms that are resident in the gut actively participate in the digestive process of food and also produce some essential nutrients.

People can manipulate natural beneficial bacteria in the body. This may happen in the form of replacement, regulation, or enhancing the benefits of some selected bacteria. Theoretically, it is possible to change or reconstruct the microflora of the digestive system by taking certain specified microorganisms into the digestive system in order to promote health, especially in individuals who have changed their normal microflora due to diseases, surgery or other medical application interventions or poor and unbalanced nutrition. For this purpose, microorganisms that are intentionally taken through digestion are called probiotics. Probiotics are live microorganism suspensions that benefit the host’s health noticeably when used in sufficient quantities. It has been shown in few studies that significant, long-term and significant positive effects are seen in healthy adults by changing the natural microorganism population.

Are probiotics really useful? Some studies have firmly demonstrated that the result of long-term use of probiotics in normal healthy adults also varies in the commensal population and creates positive health effects. Most probiotic products are applied in humans as a live and concentrated culture for regeneration or replacement of the intestinal microflora. These products are intended to prevent or regulate digestive problems. Probiotic products provide improvement in the short term, however, there is little evidence to show the continuity of the modified microflora without sustaining long-term probiotic use.

Probiotics are routinely used together with a normal diet to prevent digestive problems in farm animals. Such probiotic treatments are beneficial by reducing the use of antibiotics and preventing the development of pathogens resistant to foodborne antibiotics. Saccharomyces (yeast) strains, Lactobacillus, Bacillus and Propionibacterium are used for this purpose. Similar practices can be useful for people.

Although its mechanism is not clear, a number of human ailments respond positively to probiotic applications. For example, the duration of watery diarrhea (intestinal infection) caused by rota virus in children and progressing with water loss can be reduced by applying a large number of probiotic preparations. Saccharomyces (yeast) can reduce the recurrence of diarrhea and reduce the infection associated with Clostridium difflcile, lactobacilli (probiotics) are used to treat urogenital infections in humans.

The composition of the intestinal microflora can quickly change when probiotics are used. In many cases, probiotic manufacturers recommend consuming microbial supplements (supplements) regularly over a long period of time to achieve desired results. If the use of probiotics is stopped, the intestinal microflora returns to its original form, as it proves that the effects of probiotics are only for a short time. Therefore, while probiotics provide many benefits, there is not much evidence for positive and long-lasting benefits, especially in severe cases such as severe diarrhea, in order to rearrange the normal microflora of the gut. Carefully prepared and scientifically controlled studies should be documented as the results of probiotic applications. Standardized probiotic preparations containing certain organisms known in the studies and administered at specific doses to test their efficacy should be used.

References

  1. Salminen, Seppo, et al. “Demonstration of safety of probiotics—a review.” International journal of food microbiology 44.1-2 (1998): 93-106.
  2. Saarela, Maria, et al. “Probiotic bacteria: safety, functional and technological properties.” Journal of biotechnology 84.3 (2000): 197-215.
  3. Allen, Stephen J., et al. “Probiotics for treating acute infectious diarrhoea.” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 11 (2010).
  4. Borriello, S. P., et al. “Safety of probiotics that contain lactobacilli or bifidobacteria.” Clinical infectious diseases 36.6 (2003): 775-780.
  5. Zoumpopoulou, Georgia, et al. “Dairy probiotics: Beyond the role of promoting gut and immune health.” International dairy journal 67 (2017): 46-60.
  6. Fazilah, Nurul Farhana, et al. “Influence of probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics and bioactive phytochemicals on the formulation of functional yogurt.” Journal of functional foods 48 (2018): 387-399.
  7. Allgeyer, L. C., Michael J. Miller, and S-Y. Lee. “Sensory and microbiological quality of yogurt drinks with prebiotics and probiotics.” Journal of Dairy Science 93.10 (2010): 4471-4479.
  8. McFarland, Lynne V. “From yaks to yogurt: the history, development, and current use of probiotics.” Clinical Infectious Diseases 60.suppl_2 (2015): S85-S90.
  9. Fuller, Ray, ed. Probiotics: the scientific basis. Springer Science & Business Media, 2012.
  10. AFRC, R. FULLER. “Probiotics in man and animals.” Journal of applied bacteriology 66.5 (1989): 365-378.

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